There is an excellent potential for discovery of a wide range of other metals in Chad including tin and tungsten, iron, ore, bauxite and various minor metals.
Thin and tungsten mineralization has been recorded in association with post-tectonic granite stocks in the Yedri massif in Tibesti.
The greisen mineralization contains large cassiterite accumulations, that are often capped with a dome of quartz veins and stockworks which also host wolframite, cassiterite and copper. Gigantic wolfram crystals weighing several hundred kilograms have been found in the Yedri massif.
During the 1930s, 22t of wolframite was collected from the surface of the massif. Similar mineralization has been reported at other Tibesti massifs.
Some iron-ore deposits have been worked on a small-scale in the pasto. Iron ca be found in the Precambrian ferruginous quarzties of Hadjer Hadid ( near Gourgoudji) and Ouadday ; in haematite schists of the Koukou Angarama region in Ouadday , in oolitic iron formations near Tie Nougar (in the far south of Guera); and in laterite crusts in various areas. No reserve estimations have been made for these deposits.
The koro bauxite deposit, located south of Guidan in southern Chad, comprises several small plateaus topped by ferruginous crusts that trapped an ooltic bauxite layer up to 10m thick.
The post-tectonic granitic stocks of Tibesti also host niobium, tantalum and beryllium, Colombo-tantalite and beryl are commonly associated with cassiterite , although in Chad they occur mainly in pegmatites in the Yedri massif and the Orda Oudengui massif ( southeast or Yedri).
Various titanium deposits have been reported, including alluvial ilmenite deposit, grading 50kg/m3, at Guera massif and an alluvial rutile deposit downstream from Bousso Manganese mineralization has recently been discovered in the Goz Beida area.
The main areas of alluvial diamond production in Chad are in Abeche, Bitine, Am Zoer and Adre in Ouadday, and at Melfi-Bitkine in Guera. Local prospectors have also discovered alluvial diamonds in many regions including Melfi, central Ouadday and the Lim River in Balbokoum.
The latter region which is located in the far southwest of Chad, has similar geology to that of the small-scale diamond mining areas across the border in the Central African Republic and Cameroon. This supports the belief that further finds will be made.
Role of government
The mining sector in Chad is controlled by the Ministry of Mines, Energy and Petroleum. The ministry is subdivided into directorates and divisions such as the General Directorate of Mines, Energy and Petroleum, the Directorate of Water Resources and Meteorology, the Directorate of Petroleum and Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy and the Directorate of Geological and Mining Research (DMG).
The DMG has a multi-functionary role in managing and enforcing the mineral resources policy, managing the mining sector, supervising exploration and mining activities and defining mineral development strategies. The Ministry’s Geology and Mines divisions and the state geochemical laboratory are also part of DMG.
The DMG also acts as an intermediary for investors, and with the support of the UNDP it is now well equipped with transportation a diamond drill, a fully operational geochemical and petrographic laboratory, and facilities for data documentation and map processing, Staff have been trained in field exploration and prospecting techniques.
Chad’s new mining code was drafted in June 1944, replacing the 1970’s Mining Code. The new legislation encourages competitive minerals development and is intended to attract foreign investors to help develop the country’s minerals industry.
The new mining code allows for tree main permits:
Prospecting Authorization: a non-exclusive right allowing regional and surface investigations only.
Research Permits: allowing any research activities on the permit area including subsurface workings.
Mining Permits: authorizing the development of a mine including production facilities, any foreign company wishing to apply for a Mining permit must sign a Mining Convention which establishes specific terms such as taxes and royalties.
Other minor rights and permits noted in the new mining code include the gold digger authorization and small-scale authorization. These are used to nationals and allow the exploration of any one deposit on a small-scale. The mining authorization for various material allows production of any minerals found on the surface in the permit area.
Customs and taxes for which permit holders, their subcontractors and affiliates are liable, are stated in the customs and General Taxation Codes.
Induvial companies may be exempt from some of the taxes and customs, which will be stated in the Mining Convention.
Any equipment corresponding spare parts and consumable goods, from both domestic and overseas sources that are intended for Research and exploration are excluded from tax and customs rights, as are the personal goods of expatriates. However, fuels and lubricants are liable to taxation.
Under the Mining Convention, the rate of taxes on revenue, which is normally 45% can be negotiated.
A number of deductions ca be applied to profits depending on the capital invested and characteristic of the exploration or mining project.